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Ausencia del Servicio Activo sin permiso (AWOL o UA)

Departamento de Defensa de Estados Unidos

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DoD Directive 1325.02 Desertion and Unauthorized Absence (16 November 2012, Incorporating Change 31 March 2017)

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3. Apprehension


b. Return to Military Control

(1) Absentees and deserters shall be received at any military installation having facilities
to process absentees and deserters that is manned by active duty personnel. Immediate action shall be taken to transfer an individual to the nearest installation of his or her Military Service.

(2) Military authorities shall initiate actions to return Service personnel to military
control within 48 hours after receiving notification of the absentee’s or deserter’s place of
detention. Inter-Service agreements will be used to facilitate the transference of custody of
absentees and deserters of all Military Services.

DoD Directive 1332.14 Enlisted Administrative Separations (January 27, 2014 Incorporating Change 2, Effective 27 January 2017)

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a. Basis. Upon request by the enlisted Service member, the enlisted Service member may be separated in lieu of trial by court-martial if charges have been preferred with respect to an offense for which a punitive discharge is authorized, and it is determined that the enlisted Service member is unqualified for further military service under the guidance set forth in section 1 of Enclosure 4. This provision may not be used when Rule for Court-Martial 1003(d) of Reference (m) provides the sole basis for a punitive discharge unless the charges have been referred to a court-martial empowered to adjudge a punitive discharge.

b. Characterization or Description. Characterization of service normally will be under other than honorable conditions, but characterization as general (under honorable conditions) may be warranted under the guidelines in section 3 of Enclosure 4. For respondents who have completed entry-level status, characterization of service as honorable is not authorized unless the respondent’s record is otherwise so meritorious that any other characterization clearly would be inappropriate. When characterization of service under other than honorable conditions is not
warranted for an enlisted Service member in entry-level status in accordance with section 3 of Enclosure 4, the separation will be described as an entry-level separation.


Comentario: La calificación de servicio normal de una separación administrativa en vez de un consejo de guerra es Other Than Honorable (no honrosa), no Dishonorable (deshonrosa).



(6) The separation authority will be a commander exercising general court-martial
jurisdiction or higher authority as specified by the Secretary concerned. As an exception, the
Secretary concerned may authorize general court-martial convening authorities to delegate
authority to the special court-martial convening authorities to approve requests for discharge in
the case of enlisted Service members who:

(a) Have been absent without leave for more than 30 days.
(b) Have been dropped from the rolls of their units as absent in desertion.
(c) Have been returned to military control.
(d) Are assigned to a regional personnel control and/or separation processing facility.
(e) Are charged only with being absent without leave for more than 30 days.

Comentario: Ésta es la norma que permite pero no requiere una separación administrativa en vez (en Latín: in lieu) de un consejo de guerra por ausencias de más de 30 días.